学校校园景观规划设计作为全面发展校园环境的重要组成部分,不仅在塑造学校的良好形象方面,还在形成学生完美人格,促进学生身心健康、和谐发展等方面发挥着重要作用。从某种意义上说,学校校园既像一个复杂的社会组织,又像一处传统的聚落环境空间。良好的校园景观规划设计对人们的活动产生有益的影响,并将提高学校教育的效率。
校园景观是对学校历史”文化和时代特征的展现是整个校园环境的精髓所在。宜人高雅的校园景观能传达出学校的精神风貌,审美情趣、文化内涵等并感染人为之而积极奋斗。如此对校园环境的景观进行规划设计就具有特别的重要意义。
景观又称为文化景观,现在正成为人们日益关注的重点,它具有丰富的文化内涵,不仅寻找功能上的效益;更蕴涵着深厚的审美价值。每一所学校都有其不同的发展历史;因此;校园环境的景观设计和建设应区别于城市建筑景观;担负起积淀学校历史、传统、文化和社会的价值取向等重任。良好的校园景观给在校师生一种为某种精神而奋斗的感染力,因而学校的校园景观整体设计应努力体现学校的精神,将设计理念融入景观之中;通过对它的物化;以具象的形态表达思想;传达丰富的文化内涵。学校校园的外部环境空间与建筑内部空间的条件几乎同样重要,学生在课堂以外的时间占高度以上,因此校园环境应特别注重景观的规划设计。以一种高雅的有人情味的文化来熏陶和培养未来的栋梁之才,爱文化才会爱国家。以先进的文化来影响人,这应该是校园环境景观设计的出发点和价值所在。校园的景观设计是学校整体形象设计的关键,因此首先要了解校园景观的各构成形态,再针对学校的特点以先进的理念,科学合理的策略来规划设计校园。基本构成形态校园景观可以说是千姿百态的时空艺术大综合。就形态而言,它包括了建筑物、雕塑、壁画、山水、树木、花草等单体组合,以及这些单体的组合如道路、广场、园林、建筑组群与小品等。就性质言可分为自然要素如树木、泉石、阳光、飞鸟和人工要素{如建筑物、园林、设施,两个面。从状态看;有静态要素和动态的阳光、雨雾、喷泉、叠水、动物等可变要素。此外;还有伴随学校教学生活的人流要素;这些人流要素是最重要、最生动、最有创造性和特色的校园景观之魂。校园环境景观的形式也是多种多样的;包括了建筑景观、园林绿化景观、文化艺术景观、自然景观等几种基本形式。二是规划设计理念,规划指导思想与目标凝聚现代环境设计的新理念。遵从生态环境景观设计的原理,用新颖的立意来体现校园文化的内涵,巧妙地运用园林建筑小品,园林植物进行空间的划分,最终为师生创造一个愉悦舒适、景色优美、亲切近人的学习生活环境。规划原则,功能原则。学校主要包括校前区,教学区,生活区,课外活动区等功能区,设计时应根据各功能区的不同特点进行布置。既要满足教学、工作、学习、生活的物质功能,更要满足增进师生交流,激发灵感、创造智慧、提高修养、陶冶情操的精神功能。如校前区是学校对外形象宣传的重要展示区,故设计采用简洁、大方、明快的手法。而生活区则采用休闲、亲切的设计手法,创造宜人的空间,设置较多的园桌、园凳、为师生的休息,交流提供方便$。以人为本的原则。学校的主体是教师和学生,这就要求充分把握其时间性,群体性的行为规律。如大礼堂、食堂等人流较多的地方。绿地中应多设捷径园路也适当宽些空间的组织与划分应依据不同层次需要,组织不同活动空间,各种设施设置,材料的选择,景观的创造要充分考虑师生的心理需求,突出校园文化特色原则。充分挖掘校园环境特色和文化内涵,运用雕塑”廊柱”浮雕”标牌等环境小品,结合富有特色的植物来强化校园的文化气息,体现可持续发展的原则。以生态理论作指导。坚持以植物造景为主,尽可能进行乔”灌”草多层次复式绿化,增加单位面积上的绿量。以有利于人与自然的和谐,使其可持续发展。三规划设计策略。出入口校园的出入口是人们对这所大学的第一印象,它指的不仅是大门建筑,其实际内容包括大门前的机动车回车空间、停车场、传达室、收发室等。每个学校都希望有一个自己独具特色的入口,这并非由大门的建筑设计决定,它由大门前的引导缓冲空间,大门建筑周围环境,地面的铺装,植物的配置,以及透视到校园内部的景致所组成。较好的实例有美国斯坦福大学的有棕榈树形成引道的出入口、上海同济大学校门等。校园中心区校园中心是一个学校的空间高潮,它常是由师生使用的公共设施如图书馆,大礼堂,主教学楼,行政事务管理等等设施围合而成的广场空间,大的学校可能还会有数个建筑群形成特征不同的次要中心。如深圳大学的校园中心区就以图书馆为中心,教学楼和行政楼为两翼环抱了南向的一片坡地而形成具有丰富高差的环境景观,清华的老校园中心区由二校门,大礼堂,图书馆为轴线,以清华学堂,科学馆为东西两翼围绕大型草坪广场构成了最具清华特色的景观。开敞空间是体现校园外部空间质量的重要方面,开敞空间并非越大越好,它的宜人性和层次性才最为重要,从校园的出入口或校园边缘开始,到校园的建筑设施要经过一系列道路,广场及其周边的外部空间,从不同大小的半公共的室外庭院到各建筑出入口临近的接待聚集空间,这都是校园景观规划的重点,并根据具体情况,不同规划目标采用不同的处理手法。以此形成多样的不同的空间特征。植物景观系统,植物在校园中具有举足轻重的作用,如何运用植物形态与建筑形态互相辉映共同组成景观。以不同植物来进行不同层次的绿化设计等,这些局部和细节都是需要精心推敲的。植物在提供建筑的背景色彩和环境的质感,净化空气,控制水土流失,遮荫等方面都起到了很好的作用。作为景观中活的元素,植物的花季和果季也需要适当地考虑,使不同的植物能在一年四季的动态过程中扮演不同的角色。植物还能提供环境景观的主题,如深圳大学原来就是种植荔枝的果园,建校时保留了以荔枝林为主题的环境特征等,其他系统此外,步行和自行车的交通系交通系统,机动车及其停车场系统,文物和纪念物的规划等,都是学校校园景观规划时不容忽略的方面,只有在规划设计时将这些关键点全部考虑,并有针对性的作出具体方案,才能建造出怡人的校园环境来。一流的校园景观与一流的师资队伍,一流的学术水平一样(对于人才的教化起着重大作用。校园环境是多种文化知识渗透交融的环境,是多元文化的组合,校园的环境质量直接影响师生的心理情绪,工作学习效率和学生的交往沟通,间接影响其人生观与自然观的形成,因此在景观环境的设计中!既要考虑其对学校整体形象的反映,又要具有特色传承历史文化,我们应善于运用各种设计手法,营造出面向新世纪的现代化信息化人性化的优美校园环境。

School campus landscape planning and design, as an important part of the overall development of the campus environment, not only plays an important role in shaping the school’s good image, but also in forming students ‘perfect personality, promoting students’ physical and mental health, and harmonious development. In a sense, the school campus is not only a complex social organization, but also a traditional settlement environment space. Good campus landscape planning and design has a beneficial impact on people’s activities and will improve the efficiency of school education.
The campus landscape is a manifestation of the “history and culture of the school’s history and the essence of the entire campus environment. The pleasant and elegant campus landscape can convey the school’s spiritual style, aesthetic taste, cultural connotation, etc. and infect people to fight actively. The planning and design of the campus environment landscape is of special significance.
Landscape, also known as cultural landscape, is now becoming the focus of increasing attention. It has rich cultural connotations, not only looking for functional benefits; it also contains deep aesthetic values. Each school has its own different development history; therefore, the landscape design and construction of the campus environment should be different from the urban architectural landscape; shoulder the heavy responsibility of accumulating school history, tradition, culture and social value orientation. A good campus landscape gives teachers and students an infectious power to fight for a certain spirit. Therefore, the overall design of the campus landscape of the school should strive to reflect the school’s spirit and integrate the design concept into the landscape; through its materialization; The concrete form expresses ideas; conveys rich cultural connotation. The external environmental space of the school campus is almost as important as the internal space of the building. Students spend more time outside the classroom. Therefore, the campus environment should pay special attention to the planning and design of the landscape. To cultivate and cultivate the talents of the future with an elegant and humane culture, love culture will love the country. Influencing people with advanced culture should be the starting point and value of campus environment landscape design. Campus landscape design is the key to the school’s overall image design. Therefore, we must first understand the various forms of campus landscape, and then use advanced concepts and scientific and reasonable strategies to plan and design the campus according to the characteristics of the school. The basic form of campus landscape can be said to be a myriad of space-time art synthesis. In terms of form, it includes individual combinations of buildings, sculptures, murals, landscapes, trees, flowers and plants, as well as combinations of these individual units such as roads, squares, gardens, architectural groups and sketches. In terms of nature, it can be divided into natural elements such as trees, spring stones, sunlight, birds, and artificial elements {such as buildings, gardens, facilities, and two sides. From the state perspective, there are static elements and dynamic elements such as sunlight, rain and fog, fountains, overlapping water, and animals. In addition, there are the elements of the flow of people accompanying the school’s teaching life; these elements of flow are the most important, most vivid, most creative and characteristic of the campus landscape. The form of campus environment landscape is also diverse; it includes several basic forms such as architectural landscape, garden greening landscape, cultural and artistic landscape, and natural landscape. The second is the concept of planning and design. The guiding ideology and goals of planning consolidate the new concepts of modern environmental design. Follow the principles of ecological environment landscape design, use novel ideas to reflect the connotation of campus culture, clever use of garden architectural sketches, and garden plants to divide the space, and finally create a pleasant and comfortable, beautiful scenery, friendly and close learning for teachers and students living environment. Planning principle, function principle. The school mainly includes functional areas such as pre-school area, teaching area, living area, extra-curricular activity area, etc. The design should be arranged according to the different characteristics of each functional area. It is necessary to satisfy the material functions of teaching, work, study, and life, as well as the spiritual functions of enhancing teacher-student communication, inspiring inspiration, creating wisdom, improving cultivation, and shaping sentiment. For example, the pre-campus area is an important display area for the school’s external image publicity, so the design is simple, generous, and bright. The living area adopts a casual and friendly design approach to create a pleasant space. There are more garden tables and garden benches, which are convenient for teachers and students to rest and exchange. People-oriented principle. The main body of the school is teachers and students, which requires full grasp of its temporal and group behavioral laws. Such as the auditorium, cafeteria and other places with a lot of people. There should be more shortcuts in the green space. The organization and division of the space should be appropriately wide. The organization and division of different activities should be based on the needs of different levels, the organization of various facilities, the selection of materials, and the creation of landscapes. Full consideration should be given to the psychological needs of teachers and students. Principles of campus culture characteristics. Fully excavate the campus environmental characteristics and cultural connotations, use environmental sketches such as sculptures “column posts” and “embossed” signs, combine characteristic plants to strengthen the campus’s cultural atmosphere, and reflect the principles of sustainable development. Guided by ecological theories. Adhere to plants Landscaping-oriented, multi-layered greening of “irrigated” grasses as much as possible, and increasing the amount of green on the unit area. In order to facilitate the harmony between man and nature, make it sustainable. Three planning and design strategies. It is people’s first impression of this university. It refers not only to the gate building, but its actual content includes the car return space, parking lot, transmission room, reception room, etc. in front of the gate. Every school wants a Its own unique entrance is not determined by the architectural design of the gate. It consists of the guiding buffer space in front of the gate, the surrounding environment of the gate building, the ground paving, the arrangement of plants, and the scenery that penetrates into the campus. Good examples are the entrances and exits with palm trees leading to Stanford University in the United States, the gate of Tongji University in Shanghai, etc. Campus Central Campus The heart is the climax of a school’s space. It is often a square space surrounded by public facilities such as libraries, auditoriums, main teaching buildings, administrative affairs management and other facilities used by teachers and students. Large schools may still have several Each building group forms a secondary center with different characteristics. For example, the central area of ​​the campus of Shenzhen University is centered on the library, and the teaching building and the administrative building are surrounded by a sloping field facing the south to form an environmental landscape with rich elevation differences. Tsinghua The central area of ​​the old campus consists of the second school gate, the auditorium, and the library as the axis, with Tsinghua School and the science museum as the east and west wings. The surrounding large lawn square constitutes the most unique feature of Tsinghua University. Open space is important to reflect the quality of the campus’s external space. In terms of open space, the larger the better, the better and more important is its pleasantness and hierarchy. Starting from the campus entrance or campus edge, the campus’s building facilities pass through a series of roads, squares and the surrounding external space. Different sizes of semi-public outdoor courtyards to the reception and gathering spaces near the entrances and exits of each building are all important aspects of campus landscape planning. Point, and according to the specific situation, different planning goals adopt different treatment methods. This forms a variety of different spatial characteristics. The plant landscape system, plants have a pivotal role in the campus, how to use plant forms and architectural forms to reflect each other together Landscape. Different plants are used for different levels of greening design, etc. These parts and details need to be carefully considered. Plants play a role in providing the background color of the building and the texture of the environment, purifying the air, controlling soil and water loss, and shading. It has a very good effect. As a living element in the landscape, the flowering and fruit seasons of plants also need to be properly considered so that different plants can play different roles in the dynamic process of the four seasons. Plants can also provide environmental landscape Themes, such as Shenzhen University was originally an orchard planted with lychees, and the environmental characteristics of the lychee forest were retained when the school was established. Other systems In addition, the transportation system of pedestrian and bicycle transportation systems, motor vehicles and their parking systems, cultural relics, and The planning of monuments should not be ignored when planning the campus landscape of the school Terms, only in the planning and design of all these key points to consider, and targeted to specific programs, in order to build a pleasant campus environment. The first-class campus landscape is the same as the first-class faculty and first-class academic level (which plays a significant role in the cultivation of talents. The campus environment is a multi-cultural knowledge penetration and blending environment, a combination of multiple cultures, and the quality of the campus environment directly affects teachers The students ‘psychological emotions, work and study efficiency, and students’ communication will indirectly affect the formation of their outlook on life and nature. Therefore, in the design of the landscape environment, we must consider its reflection on the overall image of the school and have a unique heritage of history. Culture, we should be good at using various design techniques to create a beautiful campus environment of modern information and humanization facing the new century.